The giant outer planets vast magnetospheres gather in the solar wind like spinnakers , concentrating protons into radiation belts that dwarf the earth's . Our Van Allen belts deliver enough radiation to keep astronauts from lingering - but the vortices of charged particles whirling around Jupiter and Saturn and their moons would strike a human dead in a matter of hours .
The magnetic fields also peel off ions from the moons, so the plumes of volcanic eruptions on Io end up as ion beams spiraling into Jupiters magnetic poles rather as the solar wind is concentrated into the Northern Lights on Earth, witness this eerie ultraviolet image of Io's ionic doppelganger focused into a point by the capture of field lines linking the magnetosphere of Jupiter and its satellites. The moon in turn gets roasted by the capture of ions from the gas giant's magnetosphere, inflicting xenomict radiation damage on the minerals on its cold surface- an area of astrophysics on which I recently published in Naturwissenschaften , and wrote of here.
Meanwhile on Saturn's moon Enceladus, things are warming up mysteriously- the ice geysers at its south pole have been imaged in the far infrared, and though the false color highs in this photo are still far below freezing a the data suggest a deep lying liquid water ocean beneath a thick mantle of ice . Since both methane and ammonia are being ejected as well, the possibility of a life sustaining environment cannot be excluded at this stage